When the need arises to evaluate a historic wood building, structural evaluation is often based on current design codes. The material properties defined in current codes are based on modern fast-grown lumber, whereas historic buildings were often constructed from old-growth wood, which has a considerably higher quality and strength. This thesis examines the relationship between resistance drill measurement and the mechanical properties of Eastern white pine. The goal of the research is to determine the viability of resistance drill testing for in-situ material characterization of historic wood structures. The case study of a historic barn is presented in this research to establish a workflow for evaluating wood structures through on-site non-destructive testing, using the experimentally-determined relationships between material properties and resistance drill measurement. The workflow includes documentation, condition assessment, material characterization and iterative structural evaluation of the building's performance.