The complex interaction between materials used to make masonry elements causes the mechanics of hollow concrete masonry to not be fully understood. To gain a better understanding of hollow concrete masonry mechanics, this thesis presents three numerical models to describe these mechanics from the micro to the macro level.
The Smeared Area Compression Model is a numerical model for predicting the compression strength of ungrouted and grouted hollow concrete masonry, using equilibrium, compatibility, and constitutive relationships. The model uses a smeared area approach to construct a composite stiffness matrix from each material's secant stiffness matrix accounting for any strength enhancement or degradation.
The Simplified Smeared Area Compression Model and Design Smeared Area Compression Equations are extensions of the Smeared Area Compression Model for use in design codes. The models are verified against 247 masonry prism tests. The Smeared Area Finite Element Model is a numerical model for predicting the stress, strain, displacement, and crack patterns of ungrouted, grouted, and reinforced masonry structures. The model is a micro-macro-model, which uses a smeared rotating crack model and combines the average macroscopic representation of the masonry behavior with the local response of mortar joints. The model uses equilibrium, compatibility, and constitutive relations specific designed for masonry. The model is verified against 89 experimental tests.
The Three Parameter Kinematic Theory captures the complete prepeak and postpeak response of cantilevered reinforced masonry shear walls using three degrees of freedom. The wall is separated into two parts by a diagonal crack, an upper rigid block and a lower fan of struts. The mechanisms of shear resistance across this crack are modeled with nonlinear springs. The base section of the wall is also modeled to account for yielding of the reinforcement and crushing of the masonry. The model is verified against 40 experimental tests.
Each one of these models is shown to be accurate in its predictions. Additionally, each model produces simple equations that can be used to predict key masonry properties, which ultimately helps engineers to design safer structures and more accurately assess the safety of existing construction.