This paper first provides an overview of a series of experimental studies carried out at Carleton University over the past two decades on reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls strengthened or repaired with carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. These studies have led to several unique contributions including the development of a novel tube anchor system, which improves the load transfer mechanism between the CFRP and RC supporting structural elements. The paper then presents a new finite element modelling technique to analyze CFRP strengthened RC shear walls with the newly developed tube anchor system. Two different modelling approaches are proposed to consider the effects of the tube anchor system. Additionally, a number of other important CFRP- and RC-related mechanisms including CFRP debonding effects, tension stiffening, compression softening, and strength and stiffness degradation under cyclic loads are also considered in the model. The numerical models were able to replicate accurately the measured results.