Knowledge exchange (KE) is a dynamic process that can support evidence-informed decision-making for environmental and natural resource management. To minimize the gap between how engaging in KE is theorized versus how it is practiced, I investigate empirical case studies to determine what is required to practice effective KE. In Chapter 2, I use a scoping literature review to assess empirical case studies from around the globe. I identify and organize the enablers to KE into an existing framework, in addition to identifying the challenges and impacts of practicing KE. In Chapter 3, I use interviews to collect information on how practitioners at the Canadian Forest Service implement and operationalize KE, and how they evaluate the effectiveness of their efforts. This thesis demonstrates what is required in practice to support and facilitate effective KE and argues why long-term evaluations are necessary to improve how we engage in KE work.