The thesis is focused on the implementation of multiculturalist policies in Europe in the second half of the 20th century until the present period. It takes as its starting point statements by prominent European politicians that multiculturalism has failed and seeks to explain why these statements were made and what their implications are for immigrants to Europe from non-EU countries, with a particular focus on the United Kingdom, French Republic and the Kingdom of Belgium. The thesis first addresses how and why non-EU migrants moved to and settled in Western Europe. Then it examines how and to what extent these Western European governments implemented multiculturalist policies, including analysis of obstacles to their success and examination of available empirical evidence on outcomes for these groups. Finally, the study asks whether declarations about the failure of multiculturalism were followed by a toughening of policies that affect immigrants.