Productive failure is a learning paradigm that reverses the standard order of instruction by asking students to solve problems prior to learning the method to solve them. Despite going against intuitions that instruction should come first, this paradigm has been shown to be effective at engendering conceptual knowledge. To date, however, the role of student emotion in this paradigm has not been investigated. Student emotion influences student learning outcomes; while there are some exceptions, negative emotion typically interferes with student learning. This leads to a conundrum because productive failure has been shown to have a positive effect on learning, whereas the negative emotion that might be experienced while failing in the first stage of productive failure could have a detrimental effect. To address this, we investigate the presence of emotions in productive failure as well as their changes over time and their relations to learning outcomes.