What are the Risks? From School Bullying in Youth to Cyberbullying in Emerging Adulthood

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Kawar, Ghadir




Objective: Cyberbullying is a complex phenomenon, and the risk factors associated with cyberbullying are dynamic in nature. Several cyberbullying risk factors identified in the literature were examined as moderators in the relation between youth school bullying and cyberbullying in emerging adulthood. Method: Carleton University undergraduates (N = 932) were invited to complete questionnaires about their childhood experiences with traditional bullying, cyberbullying in university, impulsivity, empathy, mental health, and parental bonding. Results: Multiple regression analyses indicated that empathy, depression, and anxiety significantly moderated the relationship between early bullying experiences and cyberbullying. Further, exploratory three-way interaction results indicated that depression and anxiety together moderated the relation between traditional victimization and cyber victimization. Conclusion: These results have the potential to help researchers and practitioners target relevant factors, such as empathy and mental health when developing intervention strategies. Limitations and future directions were presented.


Psychology - Developmental
Psychology - Social
Psychology - Behavioral




Carleton University

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Theses and Dissertations

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