This thesis focuses on the interaction between the communist regime and population in Czechoslovakia during the period of normalization. During this period the leadership of Gustav Husak decided to 'normalize' i.e. to reverse the political reform process initiated during the Prague Spring of 1968. The theoretical concepts of legitimacy and political culture help to analyze the interaction between the regime and population; the 'social contract' which was imposed by the communist leadership is perceived as a crucial transmission belt expressing the arrangements between the leadership and population in Czechoslovakia. The political perceptions of the Czechs and Slovaks are portrayed as closely linked and yet distinctive. As a result, these dissimilar political cultures had necessitated different responses to and perceptions of the events following the Prague Spring. It is concluded that two decades of normalization have had a detrimental impact on the subjective perceptions of the population. The social and political stratification during normalization is seen as not entirely alien to political culture of the Czechs and Slovaks. Rather, it may be regarded as combination of different inputs, foreign and indigenous, and may be seen to have been shaped by historical tendencies present in the course of the history of the two nations.