During the Second World War, the Mackenzie King government faced two conscription crises, in 1942 and 1944, which divided Canadians along linguistic lines. This is the first academic history to examine the contributions of New Brunswick Acadians to the war effort, and their response to the conscription crises of 1942 and 1944. As a result of their separate identity and historical experiences, the response of Acadians in New Brunswick differed from that of other French Canadians and the anglophone majority. Acadians prided themselves on their participation and support for the war effort and opposed any attempts by anglophones to accuse them of shirking their duty. For them, opposition to conscription and support of the war effort coexisted; as a minority in an anglophone majority province, their opposition was more nuanced than that of Quebec.