Exploratory Experiments to Determine Effects of Injected Aerosolized Water, Hydrochloric Acid, and Sodium Chloride Solutions on Lab-Scale Flare Emissions

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Jefferson, Amy Melina




During the flowback process at hydraulic fracturing sites, there is the potential for liquid aerosol carry-over into flared gases. This thesis investigates potential effects of non-hydrocarbon aerosols on emissions of lab-scale flares injected with industry-relevant aerosolized liquids (HCl and NaCl solutions). Effects of liquid concentration, droplet size, and liquid loading were compared to dry and distilled water base cases.

Generally, water and HCl caused relatively weak changes in species yields and particulate matter morphology. Conversely, NaCl solutions strongly affected species yields (25× increase in CO, 26% decrease in NOx) and optical properties of the emitted particulate. Results indicated that particulate emissions may have included stand-alone, high-scattering NaCl particles and light-absorbing particles such as internally mixed NaCl-soot.

Overall, results showed aerosols could profoundly affect lab-scale flares emissions, demonstrating the need for further investigation into potential alterations in flare emissions at conditions that may occur during flowback operations in the field.


Engineering - Mechanical
Engineering - Environmental




Carleton University

Thesis Degree Name: 

Master of Applied Science: 

Thesis Degree Level: 


Thesis Degree Discipline: 

Engineering, Mechanical

Parent Collection: 

Theses and Dissertations

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